Lists & Loops Refresher
Build Your Own Protein
As a refresher, we learned the following in lesson 7:
Genes are made up of DNA and provide the information for our cells to carry out important biological processes that ultimately lead to phenotype
The DNA provides instructions for building proteins, which are made up of essential building blocks called amino acids.
Almost all proteins are made up of combinations and permutations of the same 20 amino acids.
DNA is composed of 4 different molecules called nucleotides or bases: adenosine, thymine, cytosine, and guanine. We abbreviate these as A, T, C, and G, respectively.
This triplet genetic code is actually conferred in the biology of using DNA to make proteins through an intermediate, RNA; RNA, or ribonucleic acid, is composed of three of the same nucleotides as DNA: adenosine, cytosine, and guanine, and with uracil replacing thymine. DNA is copied into RNA in a process called transcription.
RNA is then used as a template to make a protein in a process called translation. The transcription of DNA into RNA, which can then be translated into proteins is called The Central Dogma of biology.