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Genetics Refresher

Lists & Loops Refresher

List Methods



Build Your Own Protein


Genetics Refresher

As a refresher, we learned the following in lesson 7:

  • Genes are made up of DNA and provide the information for our cells to carry out important biological processes that ultimately lead to phenotype

  • The DNA provides instructions for building proteins, which are made up of essential building blocks called amino acids. 

  • Almost all proteins are made up of combinations and permutations of the same 20 amino acids. 

Four Nucleotides.png
Twenty Amino Acids.png
  • DNA is composed of 4 different molecules called nucleotides or bases: adenosine, thymine, cytosine, and guanine. We abbreviate these as A, T, C, and G, respectively. 

  • This triplet genetic code is actually conferred in the biology of using DNA to make proteins through an intermediate, RNA; RNA, or ribonucleic acid, is composed of three of the same nucleotides as DNA: adenosine, cytosine, and guanine, and with uracil replacing thymine. DNA is copied into RNA in a process called transcription.

  • RNA is then used as a template to make a protein in a process called translation. The transcription of DNA into RNA, which can then be translated into proteins is called The Central Dogma of biology.

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